Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus 1, 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2), Qualitative

Create a Free Account to View Prices


Turnaround Time: 1 - 4 days
CPT Code:


Test Type: 2 mL Serum or plasma
Stability Time:

Refrigerate. Stable refrigerated for 14 days and frozen for six months.


Qualitative detection of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus, types 1 and/or 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2).

HTLV-1, a human type C retrovirus, is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, tropical spastic paraparesis, and other demyelinating and neoplastic conditions. More recently, HTLV-1 infection has been shown to be associated with T- and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL), multiple myeloma, some cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, polymyositis, arthritis, Kaposi sarcoma, uveitis, strongyloidiasis, and mycosis fungoides. Type 1 HTLV is irregularly distributed throughout the world, as opposed to type 2 virus, which is a new world virus, more common among Americans in North, Central, and South America. HTLV-2 was first isolated from a patient with T-lymphocytic hairy cell leukemia but has not been unequivocally proven to be a pathogen. Recent findings suggest that HTLV-2 may be associated with a number of other leukemias and lymphomas. A high rate of HTLV-2 seropositives has been observed among intravenous drug users. Both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are tropic for CD4 lymphocytes and can be transmitted by sexual contact, IV drug use, blood products, transplacentally, and through breast milk.

Blattner WA, Blayney DW, Robert-Guroff M, et al. Epidemiology of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus. J Infect Dis. 1983; 4147(3):406-16. PubMed 6300254

Hinuma Y, Komoda H, Chosa T, et al. Antibodies to adult T-cell leukemia-virus-associated antigen (ATLA) in sera from patients with ATL and controls in Japan: A nation-wide seroepidemiologic study. Int J Cancer. 1982; 29(6):631-635. PubMed 6980846

Manns A, Blattner WA. The epidemiology of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and type II: Etiologic role in human disease. Transfusion. 1991; 31(1):67-75 (review). PubMed 1986467

Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gazdar AF, et al. Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1980; 77(12):7415-7419. PubMed 6261256

Collection Details:

Collection Instructions:

Red-top tube or gel-barrier tube or lavender-top (EDTA) tube.

Centrifuge sample to separate serum or plasma. For non-gel-barrier tubes, transfer serum or plasma to a plastic transport tube.

Refrigerate. Stable refrigerated for 14 days and frozen for six months.